The intensive gain of tubers is observed at warming up of the soil to 6-7 oC and increase it till 23-25 oC detain them a gain, and at a temperature of 29-30 oC a tuber education practically stops, in this case watering is necessary.
On easy soils introduce magnesian fertilizers — Mg — or 0,25-0,3 t of a dolomitic flour; on marsh soils — 5-6kg a copper vitriol (when landing potatoes). On a cespitose soils it is necessary to apply also boric, zinc and fertilizers.
Considerable doses of organic fertilizers (50 — 80 t/g physical properties of the soil. Clay and loamy soils become less coherent that is especially important at cleaning, sandy and sandy hold moisture better. fertilizers increase productivity of potatoes and starch in tubers.
Small seed material is landed more densely, than by average and large. Optimum density of landing in the Nonchernozem zone when using tubers weighing 50-80 g makes 45-55 thousand bushes on 1 hectare (45 thousand — on sandy and sandy soils and 50-55 thousand — on loamy). At an irrigation density of landing is increased to 50-60 thousand, on seed sites to 60-70 thousand bushes by 1 hectare.
Potatoes grow on various soils, but the greatest crops provide on well cultivated light and average loams. The soil density in a zone of a klubneobrazovaniye is less and supply of root system with oxygen of air is better, the crop is higher.
In the Nonchernozem zone depth of bezotvalny processing has to be 27-30 cm. On the cultivated peat bogs and marsh soils processing is begun with a disking in 1-2 traces at a soil on 10-15 cm. Before landing of potatoes the field is disked repeatedly with a boronovaniye and arrived water filling skating rinks.
Soil temperature when cleaning potatoes has to be not lower than 6-8 oC as at lower temperature considerably vozrasat damages of tubers by working bodies of potato-harvesting cars. Decrease in temperature on 1 oC increases mechanical damages by 10%.
In our country potatoes have great, versatile value. It is used as, commercial and fodder crop. Tubers contain 25% of solid, including 12-22% of starch, 1,4-3% of protein and 0,8-1% of cindery substances. Various their part — With, In (V 82, V, RR, K and carotinoids are.
Potatoes are photophilous. At a lack of light the plant forms few tubers and poor quality. Therefore it is very important to arrange correctly potatoes rows. At North southern their direction of a plant are during the day lit more evenly in comparison with West east.
On the heavy and rehumidified soils the naibely the separate way of cleaning is effective. Potatoes are dug out at first by UKV-2 car, separate a tops of vegetable and stack tubers from 4-6 rows in one roll, and a tops of vegetable – in another. Work of the separating bodies of the combine considerably is facilitated therefore its productivity increases more than twice.