The cost of labor is defined by the working hours necessary for reproduction of this specific subject of trade. The cost of labor is reduced to the cost of a certain sum of vital means.
The relative form of cost and the Yo-equivalent form is the correlative, mutually each other causing, unseparable moments, but at the same time each other the excluding or opposite extremes, i.e. poles of one and that expression of cost, they are always distributed between various goods which are put by expression of cost in the relation to each other.
Set of physical and spiritual abilities is labor. These abilities are used by the person every time when it makes any potrebitelny costs. The labor can act in quality goods when it is taken out on the market or is on sale her own owner.
That part of the capital which is turned into labor, in the course of production changes the cost. It reproduces an own equivalent and moreover surplus, a surplus value which, in turn, can change, be more or less. From a constant this part of the capital continuously turns into a variable (the variable capital). That part of the capital which turns into means of production, i.e. in crude material, auxiliary materials and means of labor in the course of production does not change the size of the cost (a constant component the capital.
Process of an exchange of goods is made in the form of changes of forms: Goods – Money - Goods. Goods - Money – the first metamorphoses of goods or sale. Money – Goods – the second (final) metamorphoses – a purchase. Final metamorphoses of one goods forms the sum of the first metamorphoses of other goods. Two metamorphosis represent at the same time opposite partial metamorphoses of two other goods.
The potrebitelny cost of each goods contains a certain expedient productive activity or useful work. Potrebitelny costs cannot resist each other as goods if they do not contain qualitatively different types of useful work.
The cost of labor and cost created in process of its consumption, an essence two various sizes. Process of increase in cost is no other than the process of formation of cost continued further known point. If process of formation of cost proceeds only to that point when the cost of labor paid by the capital is compensated by a new equivalent, it will be simple process of formation of cost. If process of formation of cost proceeds further this point, it becomes process of increase in cost.
Prerequisites of emergence of the capital are commodity production and the developed commodity address, trade. A form – Goods – Money I will buy Money for the sake of sale. (Money – Goods – Money)’ – a general formula of the capital (its manifestation in the sphere of the address).
Work is process which is made between the person and the nature. In this process of people the activity mediates, regulates, controls a metabolism among themselves and the nature. Simple moments of work: expedient activity, or work, object of the labor and means of labor. The means of labor is a thing or a complex of things which the person places among themselves and an object of the labor, and which for it serve as the conductor of its impacts on this subject. All material conditions necessary in general belong to means of process of work in order that process could be made. The means of labor and an object of the labor act as means of production, and work – productive work.
There is nothing harakterny in this regard, as designation by the words "total time" of the workers working a total time; and "a half of time" – children to thirteen-year age. Is permitted to work with it for 6 hours. The personified time – the working day.
Cost = With + V + m. Disintegration of a product – result of process of production on three parts: on quantity of a product (the work concluded in means of productions; other quantity representing only are necessary the work attached in the course of production, or variable part of the capital, and the third – the additional work attached in this process or a surplus value.
The relative cost of goods can change in spite of the fact that its cost remains to a constant. Its relative cost can remain a constant in spite of the fact that cost changes, and, at last, simultaneous changes of size of cost and relative expression of this size of cost not always entirely coincide.